Justified and true belief as necessary conditions for knowledge

When intuitive counterexamples were proposed to each theory, epistemologists often responded by amending their theories, complicating the existing conditions or adding new ones. Until Descartes's turn inward, theories of knowledge all assumed that justification included the relation of beliefs to objects and events in the world.

They don't mean to say that we have no knowledge of mathematics, geometry, logic, and conceptual truths.

It is uncontroversial that many English words are context-sensitive. First, some objects of knowledge might be aspects of the world which are unable ever to have causal influences. In his Metaphysics, Aristotle dealt with the problem of knowledge epistemology and with the question of Being ontology of both physical and abstract things.

Exclusivism correlates with conservative, fundamentalist, and orthodox approaches of many religions, while pluralistic and syncretist approaches either explicitly downplay or reject the exclusivist tendencies within a religion.


If an animal inherits a perfectly reliable belief-generating mechanism, and it also inherits a disposition, everything being equal, to act on the basis of the beliefs so generated, what additional benefits are conferred by a justification that the beliefs are being produced in some reliable way.

It would seem it does. We could try to imagine cases in which the subjects had no such background information. S is justified in doing x if and only if S is not obliged to refrain from doing x.

The fact that believers have found joy and peace in believing gives us the right to say that the doctrine is a comfortable doctrine, and pleasant to the soul; but it does not give us the right to say that it is true.

The Analysis of Knowledge

Doxastic conservatism is an unpopular view, as it seems to endorse circular reasoning, or something very close to it. The conjunction of E1 and E2 by itself implies nothing about the recognizability of justification.

Phenomenal Conservatism

What I have done, I hope, is simply to draw attention to the commonality among all appearances by contrasting appearances with various other things that tend to produce beliefs. Pragmatic encroachment theorists think that the practical importance itself can make for a change in knowledge, without reliance on such downstream effects as a difference in evidence-gathering activity.

Foundationalists, therefore, typically conceive of the link between the foundation and the superstructure in non-deductive terms.

After all, even if some justified true beliefs arise within Gettier situations, not all do so. Here is another proposed condition on doxastic justification: Epistemologists might reply that people who think that knowledge is present within Gettier cases are not evaluating the cases properly — that is, as the cases should be interpreted.

1. Knowledge as Justified True Belief. There are three components to the traditional (“tripartite”) analysis of knowledge. According to this analysis, justified, true belief is necessary and sufficient for knowledge.

According to the Bible, God killed or authorized the killings of up to 25 million people. This is the God of which Jesus was an integral part. Fideisms Judaism is the Semitic monotheistic fideist religion based on the Old Testament's ( BCE) rules for the worship of Yahweh by his chosen people, the children of Abraham's son Isaac (c BCE).

Gettier Problems

Zoroastrianism is the Persian monotheistic fideist religion founded by Zarathustra (cc BCE) and which teaches that good must be chosen over evil in order to achieve salvation. The justified true belief theory of knowledge claims that if all the three conditions it lists are satisfied – if p is true, and you believe that p, and your belief is justified – then you know that p.

The Analysis of Knowledge

Martin Luther - Hitler's Spiritual Ancestor by Peter F. Wiener--Many of the Reformers were NOT the saints much of Protestant Church History paints them as. This work reveals some of the dark side of the leading Protestant Reformer.

InEdmund Gettier published two logical counterexamples to knowledge defined as justified true belief. His counterexamples were true, but not for the reasons cited as the evidence for justification.

So the result is a justified false belief, or perhaps simply not knowledge. The conditions postulated in Gettier-type examples are extraordinarily unlikely to occur, but the mere possibility.

Justified and true belief as necessary conditions for knowledge
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Gettier problem - Wikipedia